The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the NovoTTF-100A System (Novocure), a new device to treat adults with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) that recurs or progresses after receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Brain tumors are the growth of abnormal cells in the brain tissue. According to the National Cancer Institute, each year about 19,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with primary brain cancers. In 2010, there were 13,140 deaths from brain and other nervous system cancers in the United States.
Glioblastoma multiforme or GBM is the most common primary brain cancer. The brain tumor is highly resistant to standard treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
When using the NovoTTF-100A System, a health care professional places electrodes on the surface of the patient’s scalp to deliver low-intensity, changing electrical fields called “tumor treatment fields” (TTFs) to the tumor site. The unique shape and electrical characteristics of dividing tumor cells make them susceptible to damage when exposed to TTF, which could stop tumor growth.
The device is portable and can be powered with batteries or plugged into an electrical outlet. Patients can use the device at home, allowing them to continue their normal daily activities.
“Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme is a devastating form of brain cancer that often eludes standard treatments,” said Jeffrey Shuren, M.D., J.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “The agency’s approval of the NovoTTF-100A System shows FDA’s commitment to innovative new devices that provide patients with other treatment options.”
The FDA based its approval of the NovoTTF 100A System on results from a single international clinical study in 237 patients with recurrent GBM or with GBM that hadn’t responded to traditional therapy. Patients in the study were randomly assigned to receive either the NovoTTF-100A System or chemotherapy treatment.
The study showed comparable overall survival rates between patients treated with the NovoTTF-100A System and those who underwent chemotherapy.
Patients treated with the NovoTTF alone achieved a comparable overall survival time to patients treated with the physician’s choice of the best chemotherapy. The rate of progression free survival at six months (PFS6) was 21% in the NovoTTF group compared to 15% in chemotherapy patients. Also, patients treated with the NovoTTF had a 14% tumor response rate (RR) compared to 10% in chemotherapy treated patients in the trial, and three complete radiographic responses were observed in the NovoTTF group compared to none in chemotherapy patients. NovoTTF treated patients reported better quality of life scores and fewer side effects during the trial compared to patients treated with chemotherapy. Specifically, quality of life using the device was better than that of chemotherapy patients in the following subscale domains: vomiting, nausea, pain, diarrhea, constipation, cognitive functioning and emotional functioning, all of which are hallmarks of patient suffering while receiving chemotherapy. The most commonly reported side effect from NovoTTF treatment was a mild-to-moderate rash beneath the electrodes.
Patients treated with the NovoTTF-100A System experienced a slightly higher incidence of neurological side effects including convulsions and headaches compared to patients receiving chemotherapy. However, they did not experience the significant side effects associated with chemotherapy, including nausea, anemia, fatigue and serious infections.
A survey of patients in the study suggested an improved quality of life in the NovoTTF-100A recurrent GBM patients compared to patients receiving chemotherapy.
The NovoTTF-100A System is not intended to be used in combination with other cancer treatment. The device should only be used after other treatments have failed.
For more information:
FDA: Medical Devices
FDA: Device Approvals and Clearances
NCI: What You Need to Know About ? Brain Tumors