American Association for Cancer Research (foundation)
The American Association for Cancer Research’s (AACR) mission is to prevent and cure cancer through research, education, communication, and collaboration. Through its programs and services, the organization fosters research in cancer and related biomedical science, accelerates the dissemination of new research findings among scientists and others dedicated to the conquest of cancer, promotes science education and training, and advances the understanding of cancer etiology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment throughout the world. The organization accelerates progress in the conquest of cancer by providing financial support for scientific research, education, and communication. More…
An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large Y-shaped protein produced by the body’s immune system that identifies and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
An angiotensin converting enzyme is proteolytic enzyme that converts the physiologically inactive form of angiotensin (a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure) into the active vasoconstrictive form.
An adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH (also called corticotropin or adrenocorticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone formed in the pituitary gland that regulates the activity of the outer region or cortex of the adrenal gland.
Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs represent an innovative therapeutic application that combines the unique properties of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the potent cell killing activity of cytotoxic small molecule drugs. The key components of antibody-drug conjugates include a monoclonal antibody (mAbs), a stable linkers and a cytotoxic (anticancer) agents.
Monoclonal antibodies are attached to biologically active drugs by chemical linkers with labile bonds. By combining the unique targeting of mAbs with the cancer-killing ability of cytotoxic drugs, antibody-drug conjugates allow sensitive discrimination between healthy and diseased tissue.
Antibody-drug conjugates are part of a specialized and technically challenging type of therapy combining innovations from biotechnology and chemistry to form a new class of highly potent biopharmaceutical drugs. The unique property of antibody-drug conjugates is that these so-called armed antibodies selectively dispatch highly potent cytotoxic anticancer chemotherapies directly to cancer cells while, at the same time, leaving healthy tissue unaffected. [More…]
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Antibody?dependent cell cytotoxicity or ADCC is the killing of an antibody bound target cells (virus?infected or tumour cells) by a cytotoxic effector cell through a nonphagocytic process, characterised by the release of the content of cytotoxic granules or by the expression of cell death?inducing molecules. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is triggered through interaction of target?bound antibodies, belonging to IgG, IgA or IgE classes, with certain Fc receptors (FcRs), glycoproteins present on the effector cell surface that bind the Fc region of immunoglobulins (Ig). [Jean-Luc Teillaud. Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) eLS [Article]
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
In pharmacokinetics and pharmacology, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion describes the disposition of a pharmaceutical compound or drug within an organism. Each of the four criteria influence the drug levels and kinetics of drug exposure to the tissues and, as a result, influence the performance and pharmacological activity of the compound as an active drug.
Adverse drug reaction
Adverse drug reaction or ADR (also referred as adverse event) is an undesirable effect that may be caused by a study drug or compound in clinical research. In the case of an observed ADR or adverse event, the sponsoring company is required to perform a written investigation into the root cause. This may lead to a corrective or preventative action or CAPA, defined by the U.S Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) 21CFR 820.100 policy and procedures, enabling a sponsoring company to assure that appropriate actions are taken to prevent recurrence and eliminate the cause of potential nonconforming products causing undesirable quality problems.
Activity-induced energy expenditure
Activity-induced energy expenditure or AIEE is the energy spent on physical activity, a component of daily energy expenditure that is mainly influenced by the amount of physical activity (PA) and by the weight of the body displaced.
Alpha–fetoprotein or AFP (?-fetoprotein; also alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. The AFP gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 4. AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development (pregnancy).
AFP can be used to detect a number of diseases. AFP production is essentially non-existant after one year of age. However, production may starts up as a result of certain diseases such as viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver. AFP is also made by primary liver tumors or hepatomas and by germ cell tumors such as teratocarcinoma and embryonal cell carcinomas. An individual’s serum AFP level can be used to detect these conditions and monitor treatment.
In immunology, an antigen is any substance or agent that react specifically with an antibody to provokes an adaptive immune response, which is called into action against pathogens that are able to evade or overcome innate immune defenses. (There are two types of adaptive immune responses: humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes, and cell-mediated immunity, mediated by T lymphocytes).
An antigen is often foreign or toxic to the body which, once in the body, attracts and is bound to a respective and specific antibody. Each antigen may contain more than one site which is able to bind to a particular antibody. Also see: Immunogen.
Aromatase inhibitors or AIs are drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer. They are also used as adjuvant therapy after the primary treatment to lower the risk that breast cancer comes back. The class of aromatase inhibitors include Exemestane (Aromasin?; Pfizer), Letrozole (Femara?; Novartis) and Anastrozole (Arimidex?; AstraZeneca)
Aromatase inhibitors work differently than drugs such as tamoxifen (Nolvadex?, Istubal?, and Valodex?; AstraZeneca) and raloxifene (Evista?; Eli Lilly and Company). Instead of blocking the estrogen receptors, these drugs stop a key enzyme (aromatase) from changing other hormones into estrogen. This lowers estrogen levels in the body, taking away the fuel that estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers need to grow.
These drugs are only useful in women whose ovaries are not making estrogen, including women who have already gone through menopause.
American Institute for Cancer Research
The American Institute for Cancer Research or AICR was founded on a simple but radical idea: everyday choices can reduce our chances of getting cancer.
The organization was the first to focus research on the link between diet and cancer and translate the results into practical information for the public. [More…]
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia or AIHA is a form of anemia caused by autoantibody-induced hemolysis or the premature destruction of circulating red blood cells. Usually idiopathic, AIHA is also associated with infection, lymphoproliferative disorders, autoimmune diseases, and some prescription drugs.
One of the recognizing factors of AIHA is an elevated reticulocyte count in the absence of blood loss, a positive direct antiglobulin test and spherocytes or red blood cell aggregates on the peripheral blood smear.
Generally, AIHA is classically divided into warm and cold disease. In warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia autoantibody immunoglobin G or IgG attacks red blood cells. In most cases, patients with this type of AIHA are over 50 years of age and treated with corticosteroids and therapies for underlying diseases.
In chronic cold agglutinin disease cold-activated immunoglobin M or IgM and complement or C3d coat red blood cells and trigger hemolysis. Patients with this type of AIHA are generally over 50 years of age. In some cases cold AIHA resolves with cold avoidance. It rarely progresses to renal failure.
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria or PCH is a rare disease which is generally induced by postviral Donath-Landsteiner autoantibody at cold temperatures in children. This type of AIHA is often acute and severe, but usually short-lived and self-limited. It rarely progresses to renal failure, lymphoma, or death.
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma or AITL is a rare, aggressive T-cell lymphoma accounting for approximately 1 – 2% of all cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or NHL in the United States. Elderly patients are more likely to have AITL, which occurs more often in men than women. In general, symptoms include high fever, night sweats, skin rash, and autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia or AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia or ITP. The result of these autoimmune disorders is that the body’s immune system does not recognize, and consequently destroys, its own cells and tissues, such as red blood cells (in the case of AIHA) or platelets (in the case of ITP).
Absolute lymphocyte count
Absolute lymphocyte count or ALC is an independent prognostic indicator for survival in multiple hematological malignancies. Early ALC recovery also predicted longer survival after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma.
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma or ALCL is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or NHL. It is, however, one of the more common subtypes of T-cell lymphoma. ALCL comprises about 3% of all NHLs in adults and 10 – 30% of all NHLs in children. Initial symptoms of ALCL can include painless swelling of lymph nodes, rapid weight loss, and tiredness.
anaplastic lymphoma kinase
acute myelogenous leukemia
adenosine 5?-monophosphate-activated protein kinase
absolute neutrophil count
acute promyelocytic leukemia
autologous stem cell transplantation
arterial thrombotic event
tretinoin (all-trans-retinoic acid)
area under the curve
5-fluorouracil, often called 5-FU (Adrucil?; TEVA Generics), is an antineoplastic or cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drug used to treat different cancers including breast, colorectal, skin, stomach, esophageal and pancreatic cancer. The drug is a pyrimidine analog which can inhibit the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. After rapid transportation into the cell, a significant portion of the drug is converted via ribosylation and phosphorylation into 3 metabolites, including fluorouridine triphosphate (5-FUTP) and fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (5-dFUMP) [Package Insert]
breast cancer resistance protein
breast conserving surgery
body mass index = body weight (kg) /body height (m2)
body surface area
blood urea nitrogen
combretastatin A4 phosphate
cutaneous B-cell lymphoma
cluster of differentiation
circulating endothelial cell
chromosome 17 centromere
cardiac heart failure
chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
total body clearance
chronic myelogenous leukemia
chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
central nervous system
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
average steady state concentration
Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse events
cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI
diet-induced energy expenditure: the energy spent to digest and absorb nutrients
dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
disseminated intravascular coagulation
diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide
DNA methyltransferase inhibitor
deep vein thrombosis
enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma
Epstein-Barr early RNA
A protein growth factor (6 KDa, 53 amino acids) that binds to the Epidermal growth factor receptor. Binding of EGF activates specific growth pathways in some cancer cells and also some normal cells.
epidermal growth factor receptor: the protein found on the surface of most epithelial cells and to which Epidermal growth factor binds, causing a signalling cascade within the cells that eventually leads to cell division.
Drugs that target and inhibit the EGFR, including monoclonal antibodies and low-molecular-weight Tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
European Medicines Agency
echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4
early-onset diarrhoea-cholinergic syndrome
end of treatment
excision repair cross complement
European Society for Medical Oncology
European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
flavone acetic acid
Food and Drug Administration
failure free survival
fibroblastic growth factor
fixed paraffin embedded
follicle stimulating hormone
granulocyte-colony stimulating factor
glomerular filtration rate
growth inhibition of 50% of cells
gastrointestinal stromal tumour
G protein-coupled receptors
glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase
highly active antiretroviral therapy
hepatitis B virus
human chorionic gonadotropin
hepatitis C virus
hepatocyte growth factor
human immunodeficiency virus
head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
human papilloma virus
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma
concentration at which growth/activity is inhibited by 50%
isotope dilution mass spectroscopy
insulin growth factor
insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor
insulin-like growth factor-binding protein
investigational new drug
international normalised ratio
international prognostic index
International prognostic score
International Prognostic Scoring System
inflammatory response syndrome
interferon stimulating genes
in situ hybridization
cytotoxic killing of 50% of cells
lethal dose to 10% of animals
liver function test
lower limit of normal
low molecular weight heparin
left ventricular ejection fraction
monoamine oxidase inhibitors
mantle cell lymphoma
metastatic colorectal cancer
monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
major histocompatibility complex
million international units
metastatic renal cell cancer
magnetic resonance imaging
maximum tolerated dose
mammalian target of rapamycin
marginal zone lymphoma
National Cancer Institute
nucleotide excision repair
natural killer cell
nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma
nitric oxide synthase
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
non-small-cell lung cancer
oral nutritional supplementation
poly ADP-ribose polymerase
peripheral blood stem cell
polymerase chain reaction
platelet-derived growth factor
platelet-derived growth factor receptor
positron emission tomography
interstitial fluid pressure
pegylated liposomal doxorubicin
pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour
peripheral T-cell lymphoma
phosphatase and tensin homologue
quality-adjusted life years
quality of life
retinoic acid?antiphospholipid syndrome
retinoic acid receptors
red blood cell
renal cell carcinoma
randomised controlled trials
resting energy expenditure: the energy needed to preserve basic vital functions
reduced-intensity conditioning regimen
reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome
receptor tyrosine kinase
retinoid X receptor
squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
small-cell lung cancer
selective oestrogen receptor modulators
sex hormone-binding globulin
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
systemic inflammatory response syndrome
single nucleotide polymorphisms
Sun protection factor (SPF)
The sun protection factor, also known as the SPF, indicates the factor by which the protection against UVB rays is extended by the use of specific sunscreen products.
subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma
standardised uptake volume
lowest dose that results in no toxicity
transforming growth factor
total growth inhibition
three times daily
tyrosine kinase inhibitor
time to peak concentration
tumor necrosis factor
topo-I cleavable complex
total parental nutrition
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
time to progression
upper limit of normal
uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase
ubiquitin proteasome pathway
volume of distribution
vascular endothelial growth factor
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor
maximum disappearance rate
venous thromboembolic event
white blood cell
whole brain radiotherapy
World Cancer Research Fund